Chapter: 3 Methodology

Chapter: 3 Methodology



The Purpose of the Research


As mentioned in the prologue, the aim of this research is to find if the Integrated Model can increase effectiveness and efficiency in communication through advertising.



The Integrated Model and Methodological Issues



The research is focused on three fundamental questions regarding



External stimuli      physical/psychological state      preferences/response


Therefore the questions are the following:





External stimuli          physical/psychological state


by analysing the particular environmental stimuli, can we predict the physical and partly the psychological condition that potential clients have while making a buying decision?





Physical/psychological state          products (preferences) & com. codes


are certain physical and psychological states linked with particular preferences and communication codes as derived from the Model?


are the advertising campaigns, which use the rules as derived from the Integrated Model, more effective and efficient?


The research is concentrated on examples of emotional advertising campaigns, which is the most common type in international advertising, because as mentioned in Part 1, this type comparing to the rational or moral type, is the most commonly understandable by different people and different societies.

Regarding the communication codes, the research is focused on the colours, the most common set of stimuli, for different people and different societies. It was easy for colours to be used, due to the clear interrelation that they have with each other, as derived from the hierarchy or the colours of a spectrum, and therefore, their perfect applicability to the Integrated Model. Further research could be applied to words, sounds, tastes, shapes, any other mean of communication and any combination of the above. Those elements can be applied to the Integrated Model as well.


Who should be contacted?


In order to have a clear understanding it was useful to use the Delphi and the Focus group analysis technique. However the sample of 80 people who were approached for the questionnaire regarding the second of the above-mentioned questions, and the sample of 50 people for the questionnaire regarding the third question, is expected to provide a clearer and more integrated view.


Several decisions should be made regarding who would be the Delphi Group, and the Focus Group, and who would be contacted to fill the questionnaire.


Delphi Group


In order to achieve an overall view for the research, it would be interesting to discuss and exchange ideas with two different professors; a Communication Consultant, and a Marketing Manager. They would both consist the Delphi Group. The consultant, comparing to the Marketing Manager, is expected to have a broader understanding of the Market and the Market trends, because, he/she is dealing with several products referring to various target segments.  On the other hand, the Marketing Manager is expected to have a more in depth understanding of a certain target Group. Therefore the research was designed as follows:


Delphi Group consists of:

Mr. Georgiou, Advertising Executive, E&A Communication Consultants

Mrs. Paulatou  Marketing Manager, Telecommunication S.A.

The purpose is:

to discuss all relevant elements regarding the Integrated Model.


The questions to be answered:


  1. by analysing environmental stimuli can we predict physical and psychological states?
  2. are certain physical & psychological states linked with particular preferences and communication codes?
  3. are the advertising campaigns, which use the rules as derived from the Integrated Model, more effective and efficient?


Throughout the discussion with the Delphi Group, a questionnaire was designed, in order to apply to a sample of 80 people.



First Questionnaire: The Sample of 80 people:

Regarding the sample of 80 people we needed to get information from men and women adolescents, adults, middle-aged and elder people.

Therefore we decided to approach 80 people:  40 men and 40 women, 10 of each age segment. As follows:

Sample of 80
adolescents 10 m
10  f
Adults 10 m
10  f
Middle- aged 10 m
10  f
Elderly 10 m
10  f

The first questionnaire is applied to:

The sample of 80 people:

The purpose is:

to find if physical & psychological states are linked with particular products (preferences) and communication codes?


The question to be answered:

Are certain physical & psychological states linked with particular products (preferences) and communication codes?


At this stage, information regarding demographic characteristics such as education, marital status, etc. was not found necessary for the analysis. However, all relative data are in a database available for any further analysis.


During the research we seized the opportunity of a Book Exhibition, to meet people in a relaxed mood and to ask them to fill the questionnaire.



The Questionnaire type:



The questionnaire was as follows:








Age: Sex:
Q:    Which colour do you prefer for:
          SANTA CLAUS Red
            A REFRESHMENT


             A TEA MUG


                    A SUN




The output would provide us with certain information regarding how the respondents of the different segments would answer questions which, consciously or unconsciously, would make them instantly feel either cold & moist (Santa Claus/refreshment) or hot & dry (a sun protection lotion / a tea mug).


The purpose is to find if physical & psychological states are linked with particular preferences and communication codes.


We made the assumption that the respondents, as defined in Semiotics and analysed in Part 1 of this research, by hearing the word Santa Claus, would remember consciously or unconsciously the cold temperature of the New Years eve, the winter and the snow. This imaginary picture might make them feel simultaneously, cold & moist, no matter what the environmental conditions throughout the interview were. The colour that the person would choose would indicate whether the elements discussed in the theory of Part 1 are applicable, and whether there is a link between the environmental stimuli with particular products, (preferences) communication codes etc.

For the same reason the second question is about the refreshment can, where the feeling of thirst is related with the hot & dry condition, but the feeling of refreshment itself and the touch of the cold can, is associated with the movement from hot & dry to cold & moist state. The third question is related with the tea mug, which reminds winter conditions and habits. Again the associated feeling is related with the touch of a hot tea mug so the associated quality is hot & dry. The same state derives from the fourth question, which refers to the sun protection lotion and reminds the hot sun, and in few extreme cases, the pain from burn in the skin.

Several other questions could be asked regarding all other qualities and movements from one state to another.

The results of the research were discussed with the Delphi Group. Up to that time, we had a clear view, of how customers respond to external stimuli. In general we found, that the model is applicable. However in order to see if the model is related to advertising strategies also, we decided to proceed to an additional research and measure advertising impact, of two companies with similar product but with different advertising strategies.

Second questionnaire: The sample of 50 people:


The purpose is:


To find out if advertising campaigns become more effective and efficient, when use the rules as derived from the Model.


The question to be answered:

In regard to the Integrated Model, Coca-cola or Pepsi-cola’s advertising campaign is more effective and efficient?


We choose these two products, because, as we found out in a pre-research activity and as proved after the research, those two very similar products, (65% of our sample, couldn’t recognise the difference from the first instant) have adapted different advertising techniques and Coca cola has been considered as a successful one, while Pepsi cola has been considered as not so successful. Both products are associated with the feeling of refreshment. This feeling by its nature is linked with the movement of a hot & dry quality (thirst) to the cold & moist quality (refreshment). Therefore, according to the model, when someone feels cold & moist (the state of refreshment) needs elements of the opposite state in order to be in a balanced condition. Coca-cola has chosen the red colour in order to retain the balanced condition. But Pepsi cola has chosen the blue colour, and instant of leading message receivers into a balanced condition; it makes them feel colder & moister. This state annoys most people.


The Questionnaire type


Measuring emotions is not an easy game! In a pre-research activity, most of the respondents answered differently the same questionnaire before a meal and after the meal. More particularly almost all of them were more positive after the meal. Measuring emotions becomes even complicated not only because they change all the time, but also, because, people use a dozen of different words in order to describe one particular feeling.


However, we found very convenience to measure emotions with the use of the temperature. According to the Model summer is related with the red colour and the high temperature, while winter is related with the blue colour and the low temperature. We assumed, that people would connect pleasant feelings with high to medium temperature, and unpleasant feelings with medium to very low temperatures. Therefore we asked several people to complete this first questionnaire.



Example of the first questionnaire type



(To be completed)

Thermometer                   Associated Feeling                   the stimulus



|       |       |       |      |      |          |            …………………………… 1. Red

-40ο      -30ο      -20ο        -10ο         0ο           10ο        20ο         30ο        40ο



However after we applied the first questionnaire to several people, not safe results could be gained. One main reason was that we did not know which temperature each respondent associates with pleasure. Therefore we had to redesign, the questionnaire, and to attach the following question among the others:  “which is your favourite colour?” The respondent should associate the favourite colour, with certain temperature. This would be considered, as the pleasant temperature.


The second problem that we had to face was that in some cases, even though the temperature was almost the same with the one of the favourite colour, the associated emotion was totally different. We overcome this problem by placing an indicator, which would indicate the motion (up- down- forward- backward) that the person would associate with the particular stimulus.




Example of the second questionnaire type



|       |       |       |       |      |          |                            ……………. 1. Red

-40ο      -30ο      -20ο        -10ο         0ο           10ο        20ο         30ο        40ο



Finally, we decided that this questionnaire could lead us to safe estimations on how people associate emotions with particular issues, like a colour a product or even an advertising campaign.


However, due to the limited sample which consisted of 50 people, we decided to simplify the questionnaire output, and instant of using a scale of 16 different temperatures (-40o to + 40o) multiplied by the four positions of the indicator (up-down –back- front), to use only three for the temperature: low medium high, and two of the indicators (upwards and downwards).



Example of the third & final questionnaire type



|     |       |       |     |      |     |          |                                   …… 1. Red

Low                 Medium                High


There are two sets of questions as presented in the following questionnaire:


The first is about the red colour, and the Coca cola’s product with their associated feelings, temperatures and motions. The second is about the blue colour and the Pepsi cola’s product with their associated feelings, temperatures and motions.


The aim is to see if there is any relation among them.




Focus Group analysis:


Focus Group consists of two men (adult and middle aged) and two women (adult and middle aged too).



A more integrated approach would be achieved if representatives from adolescents and elderly people were also interviewed. However due to the limited time schedule, we preferred to proceed into an in depth analysis of the two segments (adults and middle-aged) from a male’s and female’s point of view.





The Focus Group consists of:


Mrs Adamopoulou: An adult woman

Mr. Cheiras:  An Adult man

Mrs Antoniou: A middle-aged woman

Mr.  Nassos: A middle-aged man

The purpose is:

to discuss all relevant issues regarding the Integrated Model, based on the two questionnaire and the results derived from them.


The questions to be answered are:

  1. by analysing environmental stimuli can we predict physical and psychological states?
  2. are certain physical & psychological states linked with particular preferences and communication codes?
  3. are advertising campaigns, which use the rules as derived from the Integrated Model, more effective and efficient?



The statistical analysis


SPSS, proved to be a useful tool for the processing and the reporting of the information. Several statistics like Pearson Chi- Square could indicate levels of dependability between the variables and could indicate areas of special interest. The outputs are critically presented and analysed, and they are available for any further usage.






Data Collection Methods & Techniques


The research deals with a very broad issue. However due to the limitations mainly in time, a credible research procedure is aimed to be followed, which includes, the Delphi and the Focus Group approach, together with the two questionnaires to the samples of 80 & 50 people, as mentioned before, and as will be presented later.


Regarding the Delphi Group and the Focus Group research, an informal conversation, were found as the most appropriate method for this case, based on the Integrated Model and the questions, mentioned before, that should be answered. Throughout the research, several meetings took place, with Mr. Georgiou, and Mrs. Paulatou, and also with the Focus Group, in order to discuss, and critically analyze the developments.

In the case of Focus Group, a special attention has been paid to the selected people, in order to develop, an effective group dynamic.


For the first questionnaire, the multiple choice –closed end questions type were chosen, in order to organize better the analysis of the data. However several people argued that in few cases, none of the available answers were the most appropriate for them, thus, they have chosen the closest one.

For the second questionnaire, the thermometer and the indicator technique were used, which after few adaptations, they proved to be very useful tools in order to measure emotions.

Regarding the aim of the research, any sample sized less than 1000 respondents, is considered relatively small. However the chosen one was designed in such a way so to provide trends and indications. Thus, in order to obtain a representative sample a probability sample of the population were drawn. Starting with the first questionnaire, a cluster sample has been designed where the population is divided into mutually exclusive sex, and age groups. For the second questionnaire a stratified sample, were designed where the population is divided into two sex groups male-female, and between them, a random sample were drown.

Still, the response rate was high, probably due to the nature of the questionnaire, or due to the pleasant environment –the Book Exhibition- in where, the questionnaires took place.


Why choosing the particular Research Method?


The three selected methods were proved to be effective efficient and the most appropriate for the particular research. However a first though was to replace questionnaire in the street with telephones to unknowns. When we applied this method, we found that many of the respondents were annoying. Also, due to the lack of eye contact, we did not know which was their psychological state at that time, in order to get relevant information among the sample.


The following table indicates few of the main characteristics of the alternative methods that we had.




Response Rate HIGH HIGH LOW
Selection of respondents HIGH HIGH LOW
Control on respondents emotional state HIGH HIGH LOW


The reason that we selected the first two methods, personal interviews and questionnaire, was that we could select the respondents, according to the demographic requirements, and their emotional state at that time, and also, because, the response rate was higher and the cost was lower.

Ethical Issues concerning the Conduct of the Research.


Throughout the research several elements were taken into consideration such as respondents’ personal data. Therefore, throughout the gallop, we didn’t ask and obviously we didn’t use names or other details, than the demographic characteristics of each person.















Temperature                                                        Index                 Associated Feeling



|       |       |       |       |       |      |          |                                          ……………………………..1.  Favorite Colour 

HIGH                                 MEDIUM                                      LOW



|       |       |       |       |       |      |          |                                          ……………………………..2. Red

HIGH                                 MEDIUM                                      LOW




|       |       |       |       |       |      |          |                                          ……………………………. 4. Coca cola

HIGH                                 MEDIUM                                      LOW



|       |       |       |       |       |      |          |                                          ……………………………..5. Blue

HIGH                                 MEDIUM                                      LOW



|       |       |       |       |       |      |          |                                          ……………………………..6. Pepsi-Cola

HIGH                                 MEDIUM                                      LOW





Coca- cola
Pepsi- cola



Which of the two do you prefer?       Coca Cola                                                  Pepsi Cola



Chapter:  4 Data Analysis




Presentation of Data


Delphi Group


Mr Georgiou

Chief Executive of E&A Communication Consultants Ltd.


Mr. Georgiou has been working as Communication Consultant for the last 15 years. He has clients from the private and public sector, and he is a specialist in Advertising.


We had several meetings throughout the research. He was fascinated with the Integrated Model, and he wanted to contribute, by proposing several methods in order to evaluate the Model’s applicability.


He was the one who suggested measuring emotions with the thermometer and the indicator, for the second questionnaire that we held.


From the discussion of our first meeting, he had stated several interesting points such as the following:


  1. The Natural Environment:


Mr. Georgiou agrees that, as Hippocrates theory of four Humours states, the environmental changes are those, which influence most the order of the four humors and therefore the physical & psychological mood, our preferences etc.

However, nowadays, due to the technology people live in an environment, which keeps a medium to pleasant temperature no matter if it is summer or winter.  This element should be taken into account especially in regards to advertising and marketing matters.


On the other hand climate is different from one place to the other. For example the winter in a north village in a mountain is certainly more cold and dry, comparing the same period’s climate in a north–coast. Thus, by applying the four humors theory, one should clarify more what is the exact environmental conditions, (temperature, humidity, sunlight etc…) rather than relying to the name winter summer etc…



  1. The artificial environment


Mr Georgiou believes, that advertising has the ability to ender into people houses and offices, to talk to them during the night before going to sleep, or first thing in the morning during their breakfast. He stated that as a nice book or an article in a newspaper do, advertising catches people attention, and transfer them instantly into another word. Mr. Georgiou emphasis the need to analyse this environment, which he calls the virtual environment and to see if it does influence people’s physical and psychological state to the same degree as the natural environment does.


  1. The changes throughout the day:

Mr Georgiou, said that even though he agrees with Hippocrates theory regarding the relation of the four seasons to the four phases of the same day, morning evening etc, he believes that due to the above mentioned reasons, each one of us, has his/her own biological clock. He admits, that fundamental aspects of the theory of four humours, define basic lines, still he believes, modern people varies to a great degree in regard to this condition.


So, Mr. Georgiou, believes that environmental stimuli as defined by Hippocrates and derived from the Integrated Model influences physical and therefore “partially” psychological states. However, he mentioned that each segment should be examined with respect to their particular habits, and characteristics.


Also he agrees that there is a link between certain physical and psychological states with the preferences and responses to several communication codes, and that someone can predict preferences if he/she knows, one person’s state.  He said that he could see a relation between climate and preferences, and he supplied us with monthly turnover statements of products like foods and beverages which prove that, as derived from the Integrated Model, people prefer more hot & dry food for the winter, and more cold & moist for the summer. He added, that he can see an interrelation between the communication codes and the physical and psychological state, as long as the codes become instantly or for more than an instant one’s virtual environment (the example of the advertisement which instantly or for more than an instant drives one person to a different world, developing a virtual environment).


Regarding the last question, if the Integrated Model can increase effectiveness & efficiency to advertising campaigns, Mr. Georgiou said that as it happens with the harmonization theory according to which there are certain rules but everything is acceptable if make us feel happy, the same happens with the use of the Integrated Model in Advertising. Therefore Mr. Georgiou believes that the Model provides basic lines, but a Message Designer is free to do what ever he/she believes that makes people respond faster and for longer. However, he agrees, that if the message designer wants to retain a certain condition, is better to provide relevant and analogous elements. But if he/she wants to change a condition which is in excess, should provide the elements of the opposite state.


Finally, Mr Georgiou agreed that if a product is associated with the feeling of refreshment (cold & moist) the red colour would lead to a balanced situation as in the case of Coca-cola and its can. On the contrary the touch of a cold can of refreshment like Pepsi cola, which has the blue (cold & moist) as the basic colour, instantly make people feel even more cold and moist.



Mrs M. Paulatou

Marketing Manager of Telecommunications S.A


Mrs Paulatou agrees with the main points as Mr. Georgiou states. However she believes that physical conditions do influence psychological condition. Still as many modern psychologist argue there is an interaction. She believes that the interpersonal relations influence psychological states to a greater degree than the environmental conditions do.


More specifically, regarding the market of the mobile phones, which is very familiar to her, she founds that people, who belong to the particular segments are very stressed. She insist that one reason is the rapid changes of technology, and the need that a person has to follow with the same rapid pace the developments. Therefore she believes that obviously the environment as the climate regarding to Hippocrates or, as a message sender regarding to Mr. Georgiou, does influence a person’s physical condition and consequently their psychological mood, but not to a degree that stress and interpersonal relations do to same person’s physical state.



Therefore according to the theory of four humors the sequence is:



environment          physical state    psychological state      preferences


whereas according to Mrs Paulatou the sequence for a contemporary person who lives in urban of a  technologically developed society is :




psychological state      physical state    environment      preferences

  • natural
  • artificial

First Questionnaire and the Sample of 80 correspondents


Regarding the questionnaire to the sample of 80 correspondents, the following table indicates the findings.



















More analytically, we wanted to see how people respond when they hear a signifier for example the word Santa Claus, where according to semiotics it leads consciously or unconsciously to a signified situation: the New Years Eve and the winter, which as quality is related with the moist & cold.


For this cold & moist environment, elements of the opposite state, like red colour a fireplace etc, associated with hot and dry quality, could lead the message receivers to a balance and therefore pleasant condition.


Regarding the research, the first question is: “which colour do you prefer for Santa Claus”. Not surprisingly, 87.5% of the respondents said that they prefer the red colour. However, 10% of the sample of which the 6.25% are men, preferred the yellow colour, and only 2 persons (men) out of the 80 preferred the blue colour.


At this stage, we will refer to what the focus group approach indicated regarding each question. Mrs Adamopoulou, the adult woman of the group, made the following comment: “Santa Claus is associated in my mind with the red colour. I will be very surprised to see him wearing any other colour!”  Mr. Cheiras, the adult man of the group, said that he associates Santa Claus with red! But he wouldn’t mind if Santa Claus wears a yellow uniform, just as presented in the “Catty Sark” advertisement. However, he couldn’t associate Santa Claus with the blue colour. Because as he said and the rest of the Focus Group admitted, he associates blue with the cold & moist and Santa Claus should wear warm uniform like a red coloured one.


The second question is related to refreshment for the summertime. According to the Model, the feeling of thirst leads to dry & hot condition, while the feeling of refreshment or the touch of a cold can, is associated with the movement from the hot & dry condition to the cold & moist. Not surprisingly, 50% preferred red as the answer to the cold and dry feeling of refreshment and only 25% preferred yellow and blue accordingly. Still, it has to be noticed that out of the 50% who preferred the red colour, the 31,25% are women and only the 18,7% are men.


Asking the Focus Group to clarify the particular drives behind this preference, they all agreed that initially, Coca-cola’s advertisement has influenced their perception. So when they hear the word refreshment unconsciously, they think of Coca cola first and therefore, the first colour in their mind is the red one. Those who like the red colour, mainly women, keep this as their preference. It is the colour that makes them feel balanced comparing to the cold & moist quality of the feeling of refreshment, or the touch of the cold can. However, following the same logical sequence the rest, mainly men, answered the blue colour as the colour that they prefer which make them feel more comfortable when arrive in the condition of thirst.


Regarding the third question, the tea mug, again the unconsciously linked quality is the touch of a hot tea mug, which leads to hot & dry quality. Thus, 56.2% preferred blue (the opposite colour associated with cold & moist), which according to the model is the colour that leads to a balanced situation. Then, 35% preferred yellow that according to the model is the second colour, which leads to a comfortable condition, by providing hot & moist to the hot & dry quality, and finally only 8,7 % of the sample preferred the red colour for the tea mug. Most of them (5%) are adolescents and middle-aged men.


From the discussion with the Focus Group derived, that they prefer the blue colour of the mug than red, as an answer to the hot and dry feeling of the hot mug’s touch.

The last question of the first questionnaire is related to the same condition, hot and dry, and it is about the sun protection lotion.  Again the answers were as expected according to the model. The sun protection of the product is related to skin burn, and as Mrs Antoniou said this feeling causes pain! Therefore, most of the people more than 52,5% of which the 33,75% are men preferred the blue colour, and the 35% preferred the yellow colour. Of them 21.2% are women. Still, 12.5% answered red, while no famous brands have been associated with. For example Nivea or Coppertone uses mainly blue and orange colours accordingly.


So up to this point the findings, lead us to a conclusion, that certain physical and psychological states, (like temperature, & feelings) are linked with particular products and communication codes (colours, shapes qualities etc). If one particular feeling is in excess, and the person wants to change it, it is more common to do it by using elements of the opposite state as presented in the Model As for example: in a case of snow and cold people prefer red colour uniform and fire-place (the example of Santa Claus). Or to defend from the hot sun and to avoid burn in their skin, they prefer the calmness of the sea and the dark blue colour (the example of the sun protection lotions).

Second Questionnaire and the Sample of 50 correspondents



In a pre -research activity, we found out, that more than 65% of the people, found difficult to identify from the very first instant if the refreshment that they have tasted were Coca-Cola or Pepsi-Cola. However, 3 out of 4 preferred Coca –Cola, because as most of the 59% said, “Pepsi Cola is sweeter than Coca-cola”.


The sample of the second questionnaire consisted of 50 people. There were 49 forms valid and only one invalid.



Regarding demographic characteristic, the sample was as follows:








Demographic Characteristics


SEX: The sample consists of 49 people, 22 of them are men and 27 of them are women.



AGE: 5 of them are up to 24 years old 20 are between 24 to 36 years old, 15 are between 36 to 54 and 8 are older.


EDUCATION: 8 people out of the 49 have the Basic Education, 20 middle level, and 21 high level.


MARITAL STATUS: Of them, 21 are single, and 28 are married





The following are few of the most important findings of the research:


  • Of a sample of 49 people, 11 people said that their favourite colour is blue, 7 people said that they like red and 7 said that they like green, 6 said that they like white and 5 said that they like black.





  • Out of the 11 people who have chosen Blue as their favourite colour the 9 are men, and the 2 are women. However out of the 7 people who have chosen red as their favourite colour all of them are women. And of the 7 people who liked Green two are women and the 5 are men.


  • From the same sample of 49 people, 38 of them associated their favourite colour with high temperature and pleasant feeling and only 7 associated it with medium temperature and pleasant feeling.





From the above, it is clear, that more men prefer the blue and the cold colours, while more women prefer the red and the warm colours. Nonetheless, both associate their favourite colour with high temperature and pleasant feeling.




When we discussed this with the Focus Group, Mr. Nassos said, that he prefers blue, he associates blue colour with the cold & moist (water, sea, sky etc) nonetheless, he feels nice when he sees this colour. And when he feels “nice” he associates this feeling with high temperature and pleasant feeling. Mrs Adamopoulou agreed that she feels exactly the same way for the Green colour. She said that she likes green, she associates this colour with nature, and the spring and she feels “nice” when she is looking at this colour. However, she associates this “nice” feeling, with medium to high temperature, and not with the medium to low temperature that early spring has comparing for example with the late spring or the summer.


However both Mr. Cheiras and Mrs. Adamopoulou said, that even though red and blue are not their favourite colours, they associate both with high temperature and pleasant feeling.


Mr. Antoniou, added, that she does not like black colour and that she associates this colour with low temperature and unpleasant feeling. The rest of the Group agreed, that:







They associate the colours that they like (no matter which colours are) with the high temperature and pleasant feelings, and the colours that they do not like, with the low temperature and unpleasant feelings.














  • Out of the 49 respondents, 33 people associated red colour with high temperature pleasant feeling and 8 out of them with low temperature and unpleasant feeling






  • Accordingly, 25 of them associated blue colour with high temperature and pleasant feeling, and of them only 5 associated it with low temperature and unpleasant feeling




The above two indicated that even though red is not their favourite colour, more people are attracted by red comparing to the blue colour.  Mr. Georgiou said, that red is warm colour by its nature, and it is associated directly with the high temperature that is the most pleasant temperature for most of the respondents



  • Almost all of the respondents associated coca-cola with red colour, and Pepsi-cola with blue.





The following tables present the cross tabulation of


  1. Red colour & Coca Cola Product           Table 4-1
  2. Blue colour & Pepsi Cola Product Table 4-2


However, the data are not enough to provide accurate results of the chi-square Test, regarding the whole scale of the measurement.


  • As in (table 4-1) out of the 32 respondents, who associated red with high temperature and pleasant feelings, 40,6% associated Coca cola with high temperature and pleasant feeling also, and only 21% with low temperature and unpleasant feeling.
  • In case of Pepsi Cola, (table 4-2) out of the 25 respondents who associated blue with high temperature and pleasant feeling, only the 8% associated Pepsi cola with high temperature and pleasant feeling, while 68% associated it with low temperature and unpleasant feeling.



That means that most of the respondents have associated Coca-cola with a balanced pleasant feeling, but Pepsi-cola with a cold unpleasant feeling.


This indicates that similar products with different advertising strategies, have totally different impact to people’s perception. As it happens with the tea mug, in which case people prefer blue colour to protect them from the touch of a mug with hot tea (hot & dry condition), accordingly they prefer red colour (hot & dry) for the refreshment’s can, in order to feel balance while touching it, (cold & moist) as in the case of Coca- cola.


This is the reason why most of the respondents associated Coca-cola advertisement (refreshment (cold & dry) + red (hot & moist)), with high and pleasant temperature. On the contrary, even though most of the respondents associated blue with high and pleasant feeling, most of them associated Pepsi-cola advertisement (refreshment (cold & dry) + blue (cold +dry)) with low temperature and unpleasant feeling.